From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In linguistics, grammar refers to the logical and structural rules that govern the composition of sentences, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics.
Each language has its own distinct grammar (singular). “English grammar” is the set of rules within the English language itself. “An English grammar” is a specific study or analysis of these rules. A reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a “reference grammar” or simply “a grammar”. A fully explicit grammar exhaustively describing the grammatical constructions of a language is called a descriptive grammar, as opposed to linguistic prescription, which tries to enforce the governing rules of how a language is to be used.
Grammatical frameworks are approaches to constructing grammars. The standard framework of generative grammar is the transformational grammar model developed in various ways by Noam Chomsky and his followers from the 1950s onwards.
The word grammar derives from Greek γραμματικὴ τέχνη (grammatikē technē), which means “art of letters,” from γράμμα (gramma), “letter”, itself from γράφειν (graphein), “to draw, to write”.
The first systematic grammars originated in Iron Age India, with Yaska (6th c. BC), Panini (4th c. BC) and his commentators Pingala (ca. 200 BC), Katyayana, and Patanjali (2nd c. BC). In the West, grammar emerged as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd c. BC forward with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace, the oldest extant work being the Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική), attributed to Dionysius Thrax (ca. 100 BC). Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, Aemilius Asper.
The first treatises on Hebrew grammar appeared in the High Middle Ages, in the context of Mishnah (exegesis of the Hebrew Bible). The Karaite tradition originated in Abbasid Baghdad. The Diqduq (10th century) is one of the earliest grammatical commentaries on the Hebrew Bible. Ibn Barun in the 12th century compares the Hebrew language with Arabic in the Islamic grammatical tradition.
Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian. Treatment of vernaculars began gradually during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but became influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492. During the 16th century Italian Renaissance, the Questione della lingua was the discussion on the status and ideal form of the Italian language, initiated by Dante’s de vulgari eloquentia (Pietro Bembo, Prose della volgar lingua Venice 1525).
Grammars of non-European languages began to be compiled for the purposes of evangelization and Bible translation from the 16th century onward, such as Grammatica o Arte de la Lengua General de los Indios de los Reynos del Perú (1560), and a Quechua grammar by Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás. In 1643 there appeared Ivan Uzhevych‘s Grammatica sclavonica and, in 1762, the Short Introduction to English Grammar of Robert Lowth was also published. The Grammatisch-Kritisches Wörterbuch der hochdeutschen Mundart, a High German grammar in five volumes by Johann Christoph Adelung, appeared as early as 1774.
From the latter part of the 18th century, grammar came to be understood as a subfield of the emerging discipline of modern linguistics. The Serbian grammar by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić arrived in 1814, while the Deutsche Grammatik of the Brothers Grimm was first published in 1818. The Comparative Grammar of Franz Bopp, the starting point of modern comparative linguistics, came out in 1833.
 Development of grammars
Grammars evolve through usage and also due to separations of the human population. With the advent of written representations, formal rules about language usage tend to appear also. Formal grammars are codifications of usage that are developed by repeated documentation over time, and by observation as well. As the rules become established and developed, the prescriptive concept of grammatical correctness can arise. This often creates a discrepancy between contemporary usage and that which has been accepted, over time, as being correct. Linguists tend to believe that prescriptive grammars do not have any justification beyond their authors’ aesthetic tastes; however, prescriptions are considered in sociolinguistics as part of the explanation for why some people say “I didn’t do nothing”, some say “I didn’t do anything”, and some say one or the other depending on social context.
The formal study of grammar is an important part of education for children from a young age through advanced learning, though the rules taught in schools are not a “grammar” in the sense most linguists use the term, as they are often prescriptive rather than descriptive.
Constructed languages (also called planned languages or conlangs) are more common in the modern day. Many have been designed to aid human communication (for example, naturalistic Interlingua, schematic Esperanto, and the highly logic-compatible artificial language Lojban). Each of these languages has its own grammar.
No clear line can be drawn between syntax and morphology. Analytic languages use syntax to convey information that is encoded via inflection in synthetic languages. In other words, word order is not significant and morphology is highly significant in a purely synthetic language, whereas morphology is not significant and syntax is highly significant in an analytic language. Chinese and Afrikaans, for example, are highly analytic, and meaning is therefore very context – dependent. (Both do have some inflections, and have had more in the past; thus, they are becoming even less synthetic and more “purely” analytic over time.) Latin, which is highly synthetic, uses affixes and inflections to convey the same information that Chinese does with syntax. Because Latin words are quite (though not completely) self-contained, an intelligible Latin sentence can be made from elements that are placed in a largely arbitrary order. Latin has a complex affixation and simple syntax, while Chinese has the opposite.
 Grammar frameworks
Various “grammar frameworks” have been developed in theoretical linguistics since the mid 20th century, in particular under the influence of the idea of a “Universal grammar” in the United States. Of these, the main divisions are:
- Transformational grammar (TG)
- Systemic functional grammar (SFG)
- Principles and Parameters Theory (P&P)
- Lexical-functional Grammar (LFG)
- Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG)
- Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG)
- Dependency grammars (DG)
- Role and reference grammar (RRG)
The standard language taught contrasts with dialects or vernaculars which may be the objects of study in descriptive grammar but which are not taught prescriptively. The standardized “first language” taught in primary education may be subject to political controversy, since it establishes a standard defining nationality or ethnicity.
The pre-eminence of Parisian French has reigned largely unchallenged throughout the history of modern French literature. Standard Italian is not based on the speech of the capital, Rome, but on the speech of Florence due to the influence of Florentines had on early Italian literature. Similarly, standard Spanish is not based on the speech of Madrid, but on the one by educated speakers from more northerly areas like Castile and León. In Argentina and Uruguay the Spanish standard is based on the local dialects of Buenos Aires and Montevideo (Rioplatense Spanish). Portuguese has two official written standards, respectively Brazilian Portuguese and European Portuguese.
Norwegian has two standards, Bokmål and Nynorsk the choice between which is subject to controversy: Each Norwegian municipality can declare one of the two its official language, or it can remain “language neutral”. Nynorsk is endorsed by a minority of 27% of the municipalities. The main language used in primary schools normally follows the official language of its municipality, and is decided by referendum within the local school district. Standard German emerged out of the standardized chancellery use of High German in the 16th and 17th centuries. Until about 1800, it was almost entirely a written language, but now it is so widely spoken that most of the former German dialects are near-extinct.
Standard Mandarin has official status as the standard spoken form of the Chinese language in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Republic of China (ROC) and the Republic of Singapore. Pronunciations of Standard Mandarin is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin Chinese, while grammar and syntax are based on modern vernacular Chinese. Modern Standard Arabic is directly based on Classical Arabic, the language of the Qur’an. The Hindustani language has two standards, Hindi and Urdu.
 See also
- Category:Grammars of specific languages
- Ambiguous grammar
- Fremdsprachen und Hochschule
- Government and binding
- Harmonic Grammar
- Higher-order grammar
- Linguistic typology
- List of linguists
- Systemic functional grammar
- Universal grammar
- Role and reference grammar
 Notes and references
- American Academic Press, The (ed.). William Strunk, Jr., et al. The Classics of Style: The Fundamentals of Language Style From Our American Craftsmen. Cleveland: The American Academic Press, 2006. ISBN 0978728203.
- Rundle, Bede. Grammar in Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. ISBN 0198246129.
 External links
- English Grammar (Gramática da Língua Inglesa), wikibook in English and Portuguese
- Online Grammar Practice
- GrammarForum.com Free grammar forum for the English and Spanish languages
- GrammarBoard: a free online grammar community with Grammar Q&A’s, ESL, and other help.
- Grammar Guard: a community of grammarians acting as grammar watchdog.